Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
anine aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT); albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio; albumin, serum; alkaline phosphatase, serum; aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT); bilirubin, total; BUN; BUN:creatinine ratio; calcium, serum; carbon dioxide, total; chloride, serum; creatinine, serum; globulin, total; glucose, serum; potassium, serum; protein, total, serum
ALT (alanine aminotransferase)
Healthy range: 8 to 37 IU/L
This test looks at levels of the liver enzyme ALT. A high score may indicate liver damage.
Healthy range: 3.9 to 5.0 g/dL
A protein made by the liver, albumin levels can be an indicator of liver or kidney problems.
A/G ratio (albumin/globulin ratio) or total protein test
Healthy ratio: a bit over 1, favoring albumin
The A/G ratio test compares levels of these proteins with one another. High protein levels could indicate a health condition in need of attention.
Healthy range: 44 to 147 IU/L
High levels may indicate problems with the liver or bone-related disease.
AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
Healthy range: 10 to 34 IU/L
High levels may indicate problems in the heart and/or liver.
Healthy range: 0.1 to 1.9 mg/dL
This provides information about liver and kidney functions, problems in bile ducts, and anemia. Elevated concentrations may lead to jaundice.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Healthy range: 10 to 20 mg/dL
High BUN may indicate kidney functionproblems. Some medications and a high protein diet can also elevate BUN levels.
Healthy ratio of BUN to creatinine: 10:1 to 20:1
This test shows if kidneys are eliminating waste properly. High levels of creatinine, a by-product of muscle contractions, are excreted through the kidneys and suggest reduced kidney function.
Healthy range: 9.0 to 10.5 mg/dL (older people may score a bit lower)
Too much calcium in the bloodstream could indicate kidney problems; overly active thyroid or parathyroid glands; certain types of cancer, including lymphoma; problems with the pancreas; or a deficiency of vitamin D.
Healthy range: 98 to 106 mEq/L
A high-salt diet and some medications can elevate chloride levels. Excess chloride may indicate an overly acidic environment in the body. It also could be an indicator of dehydration, multiple myeloma, kidney disorders, or adrenal gland dysfunction.
Healthy range: 0.5 to 1.1 mg/dL for women; 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL for men (older folks may be slightly lower)
The kidneys process this waste product, so high levelsmay indicate a problem with kidney function.
Fasting glucose (blood sugar)
Healthy range: 70 to 99 mg/dL for the average
The fasting blood sugar test is done after at least 6 hours without food or drink other than water. Levels from 100-126 are considered pre-diabetic. Higher than that is high risk for diabetes.
Healthy range: 2.4 to 4.1 mg/dL
Phosphorus plays an important role in bone health and is related to calcium levels. Too much phosphorus could indicate a problem with kidneys or the parathyroid gland. Alcohol abuse, long-term antacid use, excessive intake of diuretics or vitamin D, and malnutrition can also elevate phosphorus levels.
Healthy range: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L
Potassium is essential for relaying nerve impulses, maintaining proper muscle functions, and regulating heartbeats. Diuretics, drugs that are often taken for high blood pressure, can cause low levels of potassium.
Healthy range: 135 to 145 mEq/L
Irregularities in sodium levels may indicate dehydration; disorders of the adrenal glands; excessive intake of salt, corticosteroids, or pain-relieving medications; or problems with the liver or kidneys.